Making the most of your pregnancy

Pregnancy is often a time of joy and excitement.1 It is also a time of change and uncertainty; expectants parents can have questions about the health of their babies and the risk of losing the pregnancy.2-4


One pregnant woman in four experiences vaginal bleeding at the early stages of pregnancy.5,6

If you experience early pregnancy bleeding, stay calm

Remember that some symptoms that may seem concerning are often normal in early pregnancy.7,8 Implantation can be a cause of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy.7 This happens when the fertilized egg implants into the lining of your womb and continues to grow.7

Discuss it with your doctor

Pain and heavy vaginal bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss.6,8 Your doctor can identify whether you are at risk of early pregnancy loss.7,9,10 Vaginal bleeding can serve as an early warning sign, and help you get timely treatment that could save the pregnancy.6,8


Sufficient levels of hormones are indispensable for the continuation of the pregnancy.9,10 Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy may reflect a low level of a hormone called progesterone.9,10 To help balance your hormone levels, your doctor may recommend hormone supplementation.9,10 Even if you do everything right, a miscarriage may still happen.10-12 50 to 60% of miscarriages are caused by genetic problems in the baby. 11,12


Taking care of yourself during pregnancy is essential to promote good health for you and your baby11,13

Avoid alcohol14

Avoid smoking14

Avoid exposure to pollution/pesticides11

Reduce stress11,13

Reduce the risk of infections15


Miscarriage can be emotionally and physically draining and takes a toll on expectant parents.10,16-19 Do not hesitate to ask for support.

You can try for another baby as soon as you are emotionally and physically ready.20

Most couples go on to experience a successful pregnancy after a miscarriage.11,20


Good health habits before and during pregnancy are essential to promote good health for you and your baby:

Try to take some time for yourself13

Exercise moderately to promote good physical and mental health13

Adopt a healthy diet and take prenatal vitamins13,21


1. Ballas D, Dorling D. Measuring the impact of major life events upon happiness. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2007;36(6):1244-1252. 2. Bayrampour H, Ali E, McNeil DA et al. Pregnancy-related anxiety: A concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2016;55:115-130. 3. Anxiety Canada. Common Worries During Pregnancy. Accessed March 4, 2022. 4. Melender HL, Lauri S. Fears associated with pregnancy and childbirth- experiences of women who have recently given birth. Midwifery. 1999;15(3):177- 182. 5. Deutchman M, Tubay AT, Turok DK. First Trimester Bleeding. American Family Physician. 2009;79(11):985-992. 6. Hasan R, Baird DD, Herring AH, Olshan AF, Jonsson Funk ML, Hartmann KE. Association between first-trimester vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2009;114(4):860-867. 7. Breeze C. Early Pregnancy Bleeding. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. 2016;45. 8. Grow by WebMED. Bleeding During Pregnancy. Accessed January 12, 2022. 9. Check JH. Luteal Phase Support in Assisted Reproductive Technology Treatment: Focus on Endometrin ® (Progesterone) Vaginal Insert. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2009;5:403–407. 10. Dimitriadis E, Menkhorst E, Saito S, Kutteh WH, Brosens JJ. Recurrent pregnancy loss. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2020;6(1). 11. Quenby S, Gallos ID, Dhillon-Smith RK, et al. Miscarriage matters: the epidemiological, physical, psychological, and economic costs of early pregnancy loss. The Lancet. 2021;397(10285):1658-1667. 12. Garrido-Gimenez C, Alijotas-Reig J. Recurrent miscarriage: Causes, evaluation and management. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2015;91(1073):151-162. 13. Cider C. Healthline. Pregnancy Happiness: 13 Tips for a Happy and Healthy Pregnancy. Accessed January 12, 2022. 14. nidirect. Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs in Pregnancy. Accessed January 12, 2022. 15. Tommy’s. Infections in Pregnancy. Accessed January 12, 2021. infections/infections-pregnancy. 16. Emotional Changes in Pregnancy. Tommy’s Together for every baby. Accessed January 12, 2022. 17. Bardos J, Hercz D, Friedenthal J, Missmer SA, Williams Z. A national survey on public perceptions of miscarriage. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015;125(6):1313-1320. 18. Farren J, Mitchell-Jones N, Verbakel JY, Timmerman D, Bourne T. The Psychological Impact of Early Pregnancy Loss. Human Reproductive Update. 2018(24)6;731-749. 19. NHS. Miscarriage overview. June 2018. Accessed January 12, 2022. 20. Stanford Children’s. Coping with Miscarriage. Accessed January 12, 2022. https:/ 21. Oh C, Keats EC, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, birth, child health and development outcomes in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12(2).